How long did it take for AIDS vaccine?


The origins of smallpox are unknown, although scientists believe it dates back to the Egyptian Empire of the 3rd century B.C. By the 18th century, colonization spread the disease around the world. It had a devastating mortality rate of up to 30%.

In 1796, Edward Jenner in the United Kingdom created the first successful smallpox vaccine, but it was not until the 1950s that vaccine treatments began to effectively eradicate the disease in some parts of the world.

However, since plague is a bacterially transmitted disease, the advent of modern antibiotics can be used as a treatment. Still, researchers believe that the development of vaccination is the most viable option to prevent the spread of the disease in the long term.

Typhoid fever is a deadly food- and waterborne disease. Although rare in industrialized areas, it remains a significant threat in developing nations, particularly in Southeast Asia, Africa and Latin America.

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Measles is transmitted when people breathe in or come into contact with fluids infected with the virus. It can be spread through droplets that are expelled into the air when someone with measles sneezes or coughs. A person exposed to the virus may not have symptoms until 8-10 days later.

People with measles can spread the disease from 4 days before the rash appears until about 4 days later. They are most contagious when they have a fever, runny nose, and cough. People with immune systems weakened by other conditions (such as HIV and AIDS) can spread the measles virus until they recover.

Doctors can give an injection of measles antibodies (called immune globulin) to people who have been exposed to measles and are at high risk for the disease. These antibodies can prevent measles or moderate its symptoms.

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It is possible that the measles vaccine may give some protection to women who are not pregnant and to people who are not in an at-risk group if it is given within 72 hours of exposure to the measles virus.


“They are completely different, the HIV virus is much more complex than SARS-CoV-2,” explains Dr. Beatriz Mothe, researcher at IrsiCaixa and the Fundació Lluita contra la Sida i les Malalties Infeccioses del Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, to La Vanguardia.

One of the main pitfalls of HIV is its great capacity to mutateHowever, with HIV the opposite is true. “99% of people who become infected do not control the virus spontaneously, and generate antibodies that are useless. Therefore, we are starting from a totally different nature of the virus,” says the researcher.

One of the main pitfalls of HIV is its great variability. There is a lot of talk about the variants that are appearing in SARS-CoV-2, but this capacity to mutate is derisory compared to that of HIV.

There are more obstacles. SARS-CoV-2 attacks the cells of the respiratory system, causing pneumonia, while HIV infects the cells of the immune system, weakening the patient. “It takes away our strength to fight it. What it does is wear us down immunologically speaking,” Mothe says.


Alternative medical treatments to a vaccine are now available. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been shown to be beneficial for many HIV-infected individuals, including improving health, increasing life expectancy, controlling viral load, and prevention of transmission during childbirth or to sexual partners. Antiretroviral therapy must be taken chronically, daily and without interruption, to be effective and does not cure the infection.[2] There are several methods for prevention of HIV infection.

There are various methods for the prevention of HIV transmission, including the correct and consistent use of condoms and latex fields, and antiretroviral schemes (pre-exposure prophylaxis and post-exposure prophylaxis). The introduction of safer sex measures to stop HIV transmission has proven difficult in the most affected countries.[3] The classical approach to safe sex schemes has been to use condoms and latex fields in a consistent manner.

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The classical approach of vaccination schedules, which relies on the immune adaptability of recognizing virus envelope proteins,[4] while successful in preventing other infectious diseases has proven ineffective against HIV.

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